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1Emergency Situations1239In the past Halachos we have discussed many cases of emergencies and danger to human life on Shabbos. However, the amount of possible situations are far too many to discuss them all. Therefore, let one take this rule in hand. The Torah lays down laws "which a person shall perform and by which he shall live" (Leviticus 18:5) and not by which he shall die. The Torah does not require a person to observe the Mitzvos if their observance could endanger life (besides for in 3 cases). Quite the reverse! The Jew is commanded by the Torah to transgress the commandments in order to avoid the risk of danger to life. And as Chaza"l say in regard to Shabbos, "It is better to violate one Shabbos and be able to keep many more Shabbosim."
2Emergency Situations1238A person who finds a potentially dangerous, suspicious object on Shabbos in a place where there may be people, or where people may pass, should alert the police immediately. He should do so even if a violation of Shabbos is involved. He need not stand there and warn people not to come close for the duration of the Shabbos, according to the strict letter of the law. Indeed, he must not so unless he can be certain that nobody is endangered by the risk of an imminent explosion and that there are no additional explosive charges in the vicinity.
3Emergency Situations1237A member of the security forces who has to be on essential duty in another part of town on Shabbos should go there on foot (or before Shabbos). He should not travel by car, even if the vehicle is in any event being driven to the same destination. If it would be impossible for him to walk all the way to his place of duty, he must insure that he is within it's vicinity when Shabbos commences. He must not rely in advance on the fact that human lives may be dependent on the fulfillment of his duties and that, as a result, he will be permitted, in the last resort, to travel there in a vehicle.
4Emergency Situations1236A Shabbos observant soldier whose turn for standing guard comes out on Shabbos should not exchange his duty with a soldier who does not keep the Mitzvos, since the latter is also under an obligation to observe Shabbos. On the contrary, if the observant Jew stands guard, he may well be able to avoid superfluous violation of the Shabbos.
5Emergency Situations1235A Jewish soldier who is ordered to report for duty on Shabbos at a time of emergency may take with him all the vital items required by the military which help safeguard human life. In addition, he may also take with him his Talis and Teffilin, a prayer book and other essential personal effects, such as toilet paper. He should put his personal effects into his kit bag together with the other items. If he has to go through a place without an eiruv, he should try to put the kit bag into a vehicle and not carry it himself. The vehicle should be one whose journey is justified by the aim of saving human life and not, for instance, a press car.
6Emergency Situations1234A soldier who is standing guard on Shabbos against dangerous enemies, may take with him a flashlight, wherever he has to go, if there is a possibility that he may need it for an essential purpose, such as looking for suspicious people or objects. If he has to use the flashlight, he may switch it off afterwards. Otherwise, the batteries may run out and the flashlight will not be fit for further use that night. In any event, he should try to minimize the severity of the prohibitions by doing things as much as possible with a (in a way different than which he would normally use to turn the flashlight on and off during the week).
7Emergency Situations1233A member of the home guard, the civil defense or the security forces who has to stand guard on Shabbos, or is on active duty, may, if the potential danger warrants it, take a gun or other weapons with him, even to a place where it is forbidden to carry, and even beyond the limit to which it is permitted to walk on Shabbos. If he has to go out with a gun, he should, as much as possible, mitigate the violation of Shabbos by wearing it slung over his shoulder, instead of carrying it in his hand.
8Emergency Situations1232One is permitted, and indeed obligated, to stand guard on Shabbos, in the war against hostile infiltrators and terrorists in their various guises, even if they only come to steal. This halacha is especially applicable in Israel. In the course of his duty to guard against danger, a Jewish soldier may go out, even where there is no eiruv, wearing around his neck a chain with an engraved disc bearing his name, military number and his blood group.
9Emergency Situations1231One may notify the police on Shabbos (even by telephone) if a small child is lost or found wandering about, in a distraught condition, and the only way one could calm him is by asking the police to find his family.

It is forbidden to give or take fingerprints on Shabbos.
10Emergency Situations1230A person witnessing a quarrel on Shabbos which is liable to degenerate into a fight a lead to bloodshed, is allowed to alert the police (even by telephone). The same applies upon the occurrence of any event which is liable to bring about danger to human life. One may catch and hold a dangerous thief or violent combatants, with the view of handing them over to the police.
11Emergency Situations1229I would like to share this with everyone! In response to yesterday's Halacha (click link below) someone wrote to us today...

"Very appropriate halacha! Someone was held up at gunpoint R"L on a Friday night, and did not call the police saying he was not in sakana anymore. I gently told him how very wrong he was - that the broader kehilla was still in sakana, so long as the perpretrator was still on the loose. He dismissed my point entirely,stating that calling the police would be chillul shabbos D'oraisa. We subsequently found out that 3 more people were held up that same Friday night!"
12Emergency Situations1228Usually, when a burglar breaks into an apartment, there is fear that he will attack anyone he finds inside. In view of this danger, the occupant, a neighbor or anyone else may telephone the police on Shabbos if he cannot chase the burglar off without endangering himself. This applies even when the burglar is breaking into an empty apartment, if it seems likely that he may also break into another apartment with occupants inside. However, when there is no fear of danger, it is prohibited to call the police, even if one is liable to lose one's whole fortune. Thus, one may not telephone the police if one sees a thief breaking into a place where there are no people around, such as a bank or a store.
13Emergency Situations1227The bite of a dog with rabies can endanger human life. As a result, if one fears that a stray dog is infected with rabies and is liable to bite someone, one may catch it or even kill it on Shabbos. Similarly, one may catch a dog which has bitten someone in order to investigate if the dog is healthy or has rabies. Otherwise one would not know how to treat the victim, since unnecessary treatment for rabies is in itself dangerous. Likewise, one may catch a snake which has bitten someone on Shabbos, so that one can classify its venom.
14Emergency Situations1226When electric cables have fallen in the street on Shabbos and there is fear that someone may touch them, one may alert the electric authority which supplies the electricity, so that they should cut off the current. One could avoid violating the Shabbos in this way, if he stood near the cables for the duration of the Shabbos in order to warn people of the danger involved in touching them, but the strict letter of the halacha does not oblige one to take this course. Nevertheless, if one wishes to take it upon oneself to wait near the cables and warn passers-by, there is merit in doing so.
15Emergency Situations1225If there are exposed electric cables or wires in the house on Shabbos and there is a danger of someone touching them, one should act as follows. If possible, it is best to leave the house for the duration of Shabbos or to lock it up that no one can enter the dangerous area. This way, one can delay the repair until after Shabbos. If there are children or sick people in the house who cannot be taken out, one should cut the electric current off by removing the fuse. If this too is impossible, or if one needs the electricity for a dangerously ill person, one would be allowed to repair them or to call a repair man to fix them, since they comprise a hazard to human life.
16Emergency Situations1224A spark that falls onto a tablecloth on Shabbos may be shaken off to prevent the cloth from being burned. If the cloth catches fire from the spark or from a candle that fell on it, one may not extinguish the flames unless there is fear of danger to human life or if there are three or more people in the vicinity and one of them might suffer physical injury.
17Emergency Situations1223If a burning candle falls onto a tablecloth on Shabbos and there is a risk of the table cloth catching fire (and there is no non-Jew around to remove it), the Jew himself should carefully remove the cloth, with the burning candle on it, lower it until it is near the floor and then gently tilt the cloth so that the candle rolls off. This may be done despite the fact that the candle may go out when it falls to the floor. If this is not possible, the Jew may pick up the candle and take it away, in order to avoid the risk of the tablecloth catching fire.
18Emergency Situations1222Although we have learned that one is not allowed to put out a fire on Shabbos merely to avoid a monetary loss, one is permitted to perform an act which will indirectly result in its extinction. Thus, if one side of a cupboard catches fire, one may pour water over the side that is not burning or cover the side which is not burning with wet clothes so that the fire will die out when it reaches there. One may also put plastic bags filled with water near the fire with the object that they should burst in the heat and release the water on the fire. If one end of a tablecloth has caught fire, one may pour water on the other end which is not yet burning.
19Emergency Situations1221One may tell a non-Jew directly on Shabbos to put out a fire in order to save sacred writings from being burned. One may also tell him to take them out of the house, even if the non-Jew will carry them in a (in a place without an eiruv).
20Emergency Situations1220It is forbidden to tell a non-Jew directly to put out a fire on Shabbos in order to avoid material loss, unless there is a possibility of danger to human life or there are three or more people about and one of them might be physically injured. Even if the non-Jew comes to put out the fire on his own, one may not urge him to speed up his efforts. Nonetheless, a Jew may tell a non-Jew to put out a fire in another non-Jew's home, even if the Jew's intention is that the fire should not spread to his own house, causing him a monetary loss.
21Emergency Situations1219One need raise no objection if a non-Jew comes of his own accord to put out a fire on Shabbos, without having been told to by a Jew. One may even call a non-Jew when there is a fire and say to him "whoever puts out the fire won't lose by it", or, outside Israel, where the firemen are not Jewish, "whoever calls the fire department will be rewarded." In other words, one may hint to the non-Jew as to what one wishes him to do.
22Emergency Situations1218On Shabbos, everybody, including the owner of the burning house, is permitted to take out sacred writings which are liable to be burned. Sacred writings include sifrei Torah, the Prophets, the Talmud, halachic works, prayer books and other Torah books, as well as tefillin, even though they are normally muktza.
23Emergency Situations1217It can be argued that if somebody, of his own accord, comes to rescue property for the owner of a burning house (on Shabbos), without having been requested by him to do so, he may save whatever he can, without the restrictions discussed in the previous halachos. This is because such a person is not likely to lose his presence of mind and come to put out the fire. Similarly, the inhabitants of nearby houses who fear that the fire may spread to them are allowed to take anything out of their houses, as long as it is to a place in which one may carry. Since the fire has not yet reached their homes, they are not likely to be so alarmed as to lose their presence of mind.
24Emergency Situations1216The owner of a burning house who is restricted as to the property he may save on Shabbos, in accordance with the rules set out in the previous halachos, may not, once he has rescued as much as he is allowed, tell other people to rescue more for him. Yet, he may tell them to rescue things for themselves. In that event, each of them may save whatever he would be permitted to save if the house were his. However, what they save belongs to them, and they need not return it to the owner of the house, since he told them to save it for themselves. They may, however, return it to its owner and request a fee, after Shabbos, for their trouble. A righteous person would give back what he has saved without asking to be paid for his exertions at all.
25Emergency Situations1215In the same way as one may rescue food from a fire on Shabbos, one may also pick up and take out a sufficient quantity of clothing for oneself and the members of one's household to wear that Shabbos. Furthermore, one may save articles of clothing from the fire by putting them on and going out wearing them. In doing so, one may put on as much as one can, even one garment over another. One may also go into a place where there is no eiruv, wearing clothes in such a manner. And after one has removed the clothes, one may go back and put on more in order to save them too from the fire.
26Emergency Situations1214The restrictions discussed in the previous Halachos in regard to saving food from a burning house on Shabbos, only apply if one takes them out in a number of separate containers. However, if large quantities of food or utensils are in one big container, one may take the entire container out, despite the fact that there is more than required for the Shabbos meals. One may even empty a number of small containers into a large container, so that one will be able to save more by taking the latter. One may not however, save more by putting the smaller containers into the larger container.
27Emergency Situations1213In case of a fire on Shabbos, each member of the household, and each individual guest, may separately rescue from the house as much as he needs for the Shabbos meals that he has not eaten yet. This applies even though the house owner has already saved food and utensils for them as well. One may also save more food, of a different variety, on the grounds that one now prefers this variety for one's Shabbos meal. One may save as much drink and as many drinking utensils as one thinks one needs for the whole day, since the amount a person drinks during the course of the day is not a fixed quantity.
28Emergency Situations1212In a place with an eiruv, one may save on Shabbos from a fire, a limited amount of food and eating utensils, and take them to a street or courtyard that is shared by a few people. The basic quantity that one may save is sufficient food and utensils for as many of the three Shabbos meals that one has not yet eaten. One may save this quantity even if he has food and utensils elsewhere. Likewise, one may rescue this amount for each of the members of one's household and any guests he may have, as well as for his animals.
29Emergency Situations1211One may save all of one's property from a fire on Shabbos if one brings it to a place that does not require an eiruv. For example, one may move his property from one part of the house to another, from one part of one's courtyard to another, from one's burning house to one's own private courtyard (which he does not share with anyone else and which does not need an eiruv), or from one's apartment to the common staircase, or to the apartment of a friend in the same house (as long as there is an eiruv permitting one to carry there).
30Emergency Situations1210If a fire breaks out on Shabbos, the general rule is that it is forbidden to save property by taking it out of the house into the common courtyard or the street. This is so even if there is an eiruv. The prohibition is a Rabbinical one, imposed because people tend to lose their presence of mind when faced with the sudden prospect of financial calamity. If their were no restrictions, then, in the panic of the scramble to save as much property as possible, one might forget it was Shabbos and come to put out the fire. Therefore the Rabbis restrained one's freedom of action, while still allowing one to save limited quantities of food, eating utensils and clothing. Having resigned oneself to one's loss, one will not come to extinguish the fire.
31Emergency Situations1209One may extinguish a fire on Shabbos that threatens to injure three or more people, even if it poses no threat to human life. This could apply, for example, to the remains of a bonfire whose embers are still hot, if there are children in the vicinity whom it is impossible to keep at a distance, giving rise to fear that one of them might burn himself. This is permitted because extinguishing a fire on Shabbos is only a Rabbinic prohibition. However, one may not call the fire department, since this involves a Torah prohibition.
32Emergency Situations1208If a fire breaks out on Shabbos in a place where there will certainly be no danger to human life, it is forbidden to extinguish it on Shabbos. One must not transgress even a Rabbinical prohibition in order to save property and one must certainly not call out the fire department.
33Emergency Situations1207If a fire breaks out on Shabbos and there is even the remotest fear that human life might be in danger, one must do all one can to see that it is put out. This would be the case if, for example, there was a fear that the fire could spread to a nearby house where there is an elderly or sick person, or a baby, who cannot be taken out on time. Also, in an apartment building, smoke inhalation can be dangerous and even life-threatening for those who are slow to get out. In such circumstances, one may put out the fire oneself in any way necessary, as well as call the fire department. Even if ten people called the fire department in the end, all have done well.
34A Medical Miscellany1206One should preferably not pray for the recovery of a sick person on Shabbos, since the sadness engendered detracts from the spirit of the day. However, for an ill person whose life is in immediate danger, an individual or even a congregation, may pray and recite Psalms. They may also pray for a patient who specifically asks for them to pray for him, even if the danger is not so immediate. An ill person himself, may pray privately and recite psalms on Shabbos for his own recovery, even if he is not dangerously ill.
35A Medical Miscellany1205It is permitted to visit the sick on Shabbos and Yom-Tov. One should not wish the person who is ill a recovery on Shabbos, but rather should bless him with he words "Shabbos hi M'lizok" etc... (meaning "it is a day of rest from crying out, and a cure is near at hand"). On Rosh Hashana and Yom-Kippur one may wish an ill person a complete recovery and pray for him in the same way as on any other day, even if they occur on Shabbos. The reason is that these days are in their very essence days of repentance and prayer.
36A Medical Miscellany1204A patient who cannot drink wine and cannot eat enough bread to make kiddush on, should have the intention of fulfilling his obligation to make kiddush by the very recital of the Friday night Amidah prayer. He may then eat his meal without making the usual kiddush. If, on Shabbos morning, he is able to drink wine or eat bread, he should recite the usual Friday night kiddush then, omitting, however, the verses which precede the blessing on the wine.
37A Medical Miscellany1203A patient who is not allowed to drink wine or grape juice, should preferably not make kiddush for a number of individuals with the intention that another one of the company should drink the wine in his stead. Rather, another of the company (even the patient's wife) should make kiddush for them all. Another option is that the patient should recite the kiddush himself, taste at least a drop of the wine and then pass the cup to another of the company to drink the prescribed quantity. The last option is that the patient should make kiddush over bread, and the others should make kiddush separately over wine.
38A Medical Miscellany1202It is preferable for someone who is weak on Shabbos, to say his morning prayers by himself and eat afterwards rather than to eat before his prayers so that he can say them with the congregation. However, he should go to the synagogue after eating in order to participate in and to hear the reading of the Torah.
39A Medical Miscellany1201A person who is ill and must eat on Shabbos before his morning prayers should recite kiddush before he eats. He should preferably first say at least the birchas haTorah and the first paragraph of Shema. On weekdays too, a person who has to eat before morning prayers ought first to say at least birchas haTorah and the first paragraph of shema.
40A Medical Miscellany1200A dangerously ill patient may be transferred from one floor to another by means of an elevator, if he cannot easily be taken up or down the stairs. Furthermore, a friend or relative is allowed to accompany him in the elevator, to keep his mind at rest.
41A Medical Miscellany1199All medical treatments for a dangerously ill patient that involve the infringement of a Torah prohibition, such as an operation, should be postponed until after Shabbos if there is no risk of an aggravation in his condition which could further endanger his life. Similarly, one should not, on Shabbos, perform laboratory tests or x-rays needed for surgery to be carried out on the following day, unless the operation is urgent and might otherwise be delayed.
42A Medical Miscellany1198A Jewish doctor may administer treatment of an experimental nature to a dangerously ill patient, even if the efficiency of the treatment is in doubt, and even if the treatment involves the violation of Shabbos by the infringement of Torah (and not just Rabbinical) prohibitions.
43A Medical Miscellany1197To operate some instruments, one has to turn on a number of different controls. In the event that one needs to use such an instrument on Shabbos for a dangerously ill patient, one should first adjust the various controls, and only then, connect the instrument to the electric current.

In order to identify material sent for lab testing, the request should be attached to the tube or jar containing the specimen with a rubber band on Shabbos. This will avoid the need for sticking on a label.
44A Medical Miscellany1196When taking blood for a number of different tests on Shabbos for a dangerously ill patient, one should take the blood out from one place if possible, and not take blood both from a vein and from a finger.

Certain dangerously ill patients need to have a blood count taken or their sugar checked several times a week, but not every day. In such cases, one should avoid Shabbos, unless there is a special reason for performing the tests on predetermined dates (for comparison of results) and one or some of those dates fall on Shabbos.
45A Medical Miscellany1195One may donate blood on Shabbos for a patient who is in urgent need of a transfusion, if it is not available from a blood bank. In these circumstances, one may donate blood even if this will necessitate one's having to sign one's name or have one's name noted down. When necessary, one is allowed to use a vehicle to bring donors or the equipment required.
46A Medical Miscellany1194Even inessential treatment may be given to patients in a hospital on Shabbos, if the delay in these treatments may somehow cause that dangerously ill patients will not receive proper attention later, even after Shabbos. Nevertheless, hospital managements would do well to consult a halachic authority for his advice on how to avoid this situation, in which the holy Shabbos is turned into just another day of the week.
47A Medical Miscellany1193A Shabbos observant doctor who is on duty in a hospital on Shabbos, may well be apprehensive about performing acts which would normally be forbidden on Shabbos. However, he should not exchange his duty with another Jewish doctor who does not observe Shabbos. On the contrary, he should conscientiously carry out his duty, in accordance with the halacha, and he will receive his just reward from the almighty. If the patients in the hospital are all non-Jews, he must exchange his duty with a non-Jewish doctor who will be able to do freely whatever their welfare requires. He should not work on Shabbos in this case even if it causes him the loss of time or even a monetary loss.
48A Medical Miscellany1192If someone needs to sign on Shabbos for a dangerously ill patient, as we discussed in the previous halachos, one should try to sign as briefly as one can, in order to write as little as possible. This could be done for instance, by signing just one's initials, or, better still, with a mere, meaningless mark. It is of course forbidden to sign on Shabbos purely to save money, as where one wishes to be exempt from paying for an operation or treatment.
49A Medical Miscellany1191One may sign on Shabbos when required to do so by a doctor, before he will give urgent treatment to a dangerously ill patient. One may sign in this case, even if the doctor needs the signature for his own purposes and not for the welfare of the patient. However, one should try to (gently) persuade the doctor to forgo his demand, if possible. If, however, one must sign, one should try to sign in a different way than usual (i.e. with a ).
50A Medical Miscellany1190One may sign a consent on Shabbos to the performance of an urgent operation, but only if the patient's life is, or may be in danger. Also, this is only if the hospital management makes the performance of the operation conditional on the prior consent of the patient or his relatives, and the hospital management will not be satisfied with an oral consent given before witnesses.
51A Medical Miscellany1189A patient who is confined to bed on Shabbos and needs to relieve himself should try to find someone who can call for assistance or ask a non-Jew to ring the electric bell. If these options are not available, a dangerously ill patient may ring an electric bell on Shabbos, even if a light will go on. If possible, he should do it with a . This was permitted by the Rabbis due to the importance of the preservation of human dignity.
52A Medical Miscellany1188A dangerously ill patient may use an electric bell on Shabbos to call for assistance, even if the bell makes a light go on, if ringing the bell may help to save or prolong his life. The bell should be rung in a different manner (with a , unless this could be detrimental to the patient's condition or treatment.
53A Medical Miscellany1187A patient who is confined to bed may use a bell on Shabbos which is not electrically operated to ring for assistance. This is the case even if the patient's life is not in danger, and it makes no difference if the patient is hospitalized or at home. He may not use an electric bell unless he is sure that ringing the bell will not make a light come on, and only if he needs immediate attention to his medical needs. Even so, he should ring the bell in a different way than usual (use a ), for example, by ringing the bell with his elbow.
54A Medical Miscellany1186One should not violate the Shabbos to bring kosher food to a dangerously ill patient if his condition is such that he does not know what type of food he is eating or if the patient is a child too young to appreciate that there is anything wrong with the hospital food. In any event, even for a patient that one would be allowed to violate the Shabbos to bring him kosher food, one must do whatever is possible before Shabbos to have the necessary food available and should not rely on the fact that one will be permitted to violate the Shabbos.
55A Medical Miscellany1185One may violate even a Torah prohibition on Shabbos to bring Kosher food to a dangerously ill patient, for example, by bringing it through a place without an eiruv. This is because if the patient would know that he must eat non-Kosher food, it could cause a disturbance in the patient's mental equilibrium and bring about a deterioration in his condition. However, this is only if the patient is in a hospital where the food is not kosher and he does not have any kind of kosher food available sufficient to meet his needs. When bringing the food, one should try to carry it in a different way (use a ).
56A Medical Miscellany1184If a Jewish, non-religious doctor turned on a light in a hospital ward on Shabbos, a non-dangerously ill person may benefit from this light only if there is another dangerously ill patient in the room for whom it was permitted to turn on the light to deal with his urgent needs. Otherwise, while the non-dangerously ill patient is not obliged to leave the room to avoid benefiting from the light, he should not do anything that he would not have done without it.
57A Medical Miscellany1183A patient who is not dangerously ill, who is staying in a hospital where Shabbos is violated by Jewish staff, should take care not to eat food which Jews cooked on Shabbos. This is the case even if the food is cooked together with food for dangerously ill patients, and even if the actual food was given to a dangerously ill patient who, for some reason, did not eat it.
58A Medical Miscellany1182It is permissible for a patient to stay in a hospital where Shabbos is violated (for example, by Jewish nurses writing down the patient's temperature). This is so even if the patient is not dangerously ill. Of course, the patient must try and minimize the extent to which Shabbos is violated for him. He should bear in mind that this is more likely to be achieved by a soft-spoken request than by a peremtory demand.
59A Medical Miscellany1181When a Jewish doctor is required to violate the Shabbos for a non-Jewish patient whose life is in danger, he may do so if the activity he is required to perform is the subject only of a Rabbinical prohibition. If Torah prohibitions are involved, he would be well advised to seek detailed instructions from an expert authority on the laws of Shabbos.
60A Medical Miscellany1180When washing his hands before or after attending to a patient on Shabbos, the doctor should use liquid soap. If there is none available, he can use a bar of soap, but, where possible, only under the running tap.
61A Medical Miscellany1179In a place without an ).
62A Medical Miscellany1178A patient who is not dangerously ill may not call or visit a non-religious doctor on Shabbos instead of a religious one, for purely financial reasons. This is because the non-religious doctor will probably violate the Shabbos unjustifiably.

If a non-religious doctor writes out a prescription on Shabbos for a patient who is not dangerously ill, the medicine should not be picked up from the pharmacy until after Shabbos. This is because one is not allowed to benefit on Shabbos from a forbidden activity performed by a Jew on Shabbos (the writing of the prescription).
63A Medical Miscellany1177A person who is ill but whose life is not in danger should, if it is Shabbos, preferably go to a doctor who observes the Torah and its Mitzvos, rather than to a non-religious doctor. Thus, he will avoid unjustifiable violation of the Shabbos. If it is not possible to go to an observant doctor, or the non-observant doctor has more expertise, he should go to the non-observant doctor. This is so even if he knows the doctor will, for instance, turn on a light, note down details and write him out a prescription on Shabbos. In any event, if one can prevail on the doctor not to violate Shabbos, one is definitely obliged to do so.
64A Medical Miscellany1176Similar to the previous Halacha we learned, a patient who suffers from a dangerous condition may go out on Shabbos into a place without an eiruv to perform mitzvos, wearing medical instructions around a chain on their neck, so that, in case of emergency, one will know right away what treatment to give him. The patient, in this case and in the case of the previous halacha, should try not to stand still while he is in the street. If the need to take the medication on him (or the sugar) arises when the patient in in the street, he should, where possible, hurry into a nearby building or house, (which is a ) and swallow the medicine or the sugar there, before going back out into the street.
65A Medical Miscellany1175If a doctor orders a patient not to leave the house unless he takes with him a particular medicine for use in case of emergency, or a diabetic person who may always have to carry sugar with him, the rule is as follows; If the patient needs to go out on Shabbos in a place without an eiruv, in order to perform a mitzva, for example to go to the shul or to study Torah, he may be lenient about taking the medicine or sugar with him, provided that he:
1) does not go through an actual reshus harabbim (according to the Torah),
2) he carries it in an unusual way, such as under his hat, and
3) he does not carry with him more than he needs.
66A Medical Miscellany1174Although it is prohibited to soak laundry in water on Shabbos, one may soak the laundry of a patient suffering from a contagious or infectious disease in disinfectant, in order to prevent the illness from spreading. One must not, however, do anything else towards washing the laundry.
67A Medical Miscellany1173If one needs to record the details of the treatment of a patient on Shabbos, in order to prevent confusion with those of another patient, and there is a non-Jew present, one should ask him to write them down. One may do this even in the case of a patient who is not dangerously ill. One may also ask the non-Jew to make note of matters which the patient will not need until the next day, such as tests requested by the doctor, if there is fear that they will be forgotten.
68A Medical Miscellany1172It is permitted to measure body temperature on Shabbos with a mercury thermometer if one suspects illness, or for a woman to ascertain the days on which she is capable of becoming pregnant. One may shake down the mercury in the thermometer after use, as long as one intends on using it again that day. Likewise, one may measure a patient's blood pressure or take his pulse on Shabbos, as long as one does not use an electric device.
69Care of the Sick by a Non-Jew1171A small child is treated by Halacha on Shabbos as someone who is ill. Therefore, one may tell a non-Jew on Shabbos to cook or heat food for a baby who needs it. One may also ask a non-Jew to grate an apple for a baby who needs it. One may request a non-Jew to turn on a light for a small child who is frightened or is liable to become frightened. Others may benefit from this light once it is on. One may also tell the non-Jew to close the light so the child should sleep.
70Care of the Sick by a Non-Jew1170In the event of a bad cold on Shabbos, one may have nasal drops or nasal ointment administered by a non-Jew. One may not have a vaporizer turned on by a non-Jew (since this could involves the infringement of a Torah prohibition), unless one is confined to bed or feels weak all over as a result of the cold.
71Care of the Sick by a Non-Jew1169If a Jewish doctor needs to reach an ill patient on Shabbos, even if he is not dangerously ill, the Jewish doctor may travel through the town by means of transport operated by non-Jews if it is too far for him to walk. He may also return in the same way. The best is if he could arrange with the driver to pay him the fee after Shabbos, or to request a non-Jew to pay the driver in his place. If this is not possible, he may take with him a pre-paid ticket (if there is an eiruv). If he doesn't have a pre-paid ticket, he may take money to pay with, but he should not accept the change.
72Care of the Sick by a Non-Jew1168If a non-Jew cooks food for an ill person on Shabbos, a Jew may not assist in any way with the cooking. One may not even put the food in the pot before it is placed on the fire, cover the pot - as long as the food is not fully cooked, or stir the food in the pot. A healthy person may not eat this cooked food on Shabbos, and the food itself may be for him.
73Care of the Sick by a Non-Jew1167It is permissible to tell a non-Jew to cook or warm food or drink on Shabbos for a person who is ill, even though his life is not in danger. The prohibition which generally forbids one to eat food cooked by a non-Jew does not apply to the person who is ill when he eats the food on Shabbos.
74Care of the Sick by a Non-Jew1166On a hot summer's day, one may request a non-Jew to switch on an electric fan or the air conditioning, when one is suffering a great deal from the heat or due to the presence of a person who is ill, albeit not dangerously so.
75Care of the Sick by a Non-Jew1165In countries with a cool climate, one may tell a non-Jew on Shabbos to turn on the heating if one is troubled by the cold. This is because a person suffering from the cold is placed in the same category as someone who is ill. If there are small children in the house, or a person who is ill, one may tell the non-Jew to turn on the heating even when the cold is not enough to bother adults or healthy people.
76Care of the Sick by a Non-Jew1164In the case of a very painful toothache on Shabbos, one may go to a non-Jewish dentist for the appropriate treatment, including the extraction of the tooth causing the pain.

In the case of a fractured bone, even where it does not constitute a danger to the patient, one may ask a non-Jewish doctor to take an X-ray or make a plaster cast.
77Care of the Sick by a Non-Jew1163For a patient who is sick, but not dangerously so, one is allowed to tell a non-Jew to switch on the light, so that one can see what the patient needs and one is allowed to tell the non-Jew to switch the light off, so that the patient can sleep. One may also tell the non-Jew to do such things as telephone a non-Jewish doctor, purchase medications for use on Shabbos and drive the patient to the doctor.
78Care of the Sick by a Non-Jew1162If a dangerously ill patient asks for his relatives to be called to visit him, one may tell a non-Jew to ride or drive to where they live and alert them. Alternatively, a Jew is allowed to walk there even where it is beyond the distance normally permitted, but he may not telephone or travel by car.
79Care of the Sick by a Non-Jew1161One may have an operation performed, have an X-ray taken or have a plaster cast fitted by a non-Jew for a dangerously ill patient on Shabbos, even though it is close to the termination of Shabbos and one could wait until then.

One may request a non-Jewish doctor to write a letter, on Shabbos, referring a dangerously ill patient for admission to a hospital on the following day.
80Babies & Small Children1160When a baby is suffering from an earache on Shabbos, a Jewish doctor is allowed to switch on the light of the instrument he needs to make an examination, since the pain could be evidence of a dangerous condition. Furthermore, if there is a reasonable prospect that the doctor will be called upon to make a similar examination on the same day, he may even switch off the light, to prevent the batteries from being used up.
81Babies & Small Children1159One may request a non-Jew to bring things one needs for the circumcision to the house where it is to take place, through an area where carrying is forbidden, so long as that area does not fall within the strict definition of a . Similarly, one may tell him to bring the baby to the synagogue for the circumcision. One must remember that, subject to the above, no violation of Shabbos other than the circumcision itself may be performed on Shabbos, even if the infringement is only a Rabbinical prohibition, and even if it is done by a non-Jew.
82Babies & Small Children1158Just as it forbidden on Shabbos to bring things one needs for the circumcision through a place where there is no eiruv, so it is forbidden to bring the baby through a place where one may not carry, to the synagogue for the circumcision. This is so even if the is unable to come to the house where the baby is and the circumcision will have to be postponed.
83Babies & Small Children1157If one did not make the necessary arrangements before Shabbos for a , and one cannot, without violating the Shabbos, make up for the deficiency, then the circumcision may not be carried out on Shabbos and must be postponed until the next day. Nonetheless, in a case where the circumcision has taken place on Shabbos, one may, of course, do whatever is needed on Shabbos, regardless of what was forgotten before Shabbos.
84Babies & Small Children1156As a rule, when circumcision of a baby can take place on the eighth day (counting the day of the birth as the first), its performance overrides the laws of Shabbos. However, all the dressing which will be required, should be prepared before Shabbos, covered with any necessary ointment, and covered to keep them clean. Likewise, if there is no eiruv and carrying articles is forbidden, one must, before Shabbos, bring everything one needs for the circumcision to the place it will be performed.
85Babies & Small Children1155A baby or a small child may be in danger, and one should contact a doctor right away on Shabbos, if it is suffering from acute diarrhea or it has severe stomach pains. If a baby's navel bleeds, it may be treated with styptic powder to stop the bleeding. One may also change the dressing. When necessary, one may even violate the Shabbos, since the life of a baby in this condition is regarded by Halacha as being in danger.
86Babies & Small Children1154One is allowed, when treating a child on Shabbos, to wash a wound, to sprinkle styptic surgical dusting powder on a wound in order to stop it from bleeding, to dress a wound in order to avoid contamination and to remove a thorn which has penetrated the skin. One is not allowed to smear ointment onto a wound.
87Babies & Small Children1153It is permitted to give a child medication on Shabbos, including nose, ear or eye drops and any pills or syrups which he needs to make him well. One may even crumble a pill for him and dissolve it in water.
88Babies & Small Children1152The spreading of ointment is forbidden on Shabbos, even on a child. However where necessary, we learned in the previous halacha that oil may be used. One may apply the oil with one's hands or by pouring it on the baby's skin and gently wiping over it, even with absorbent cotton which was torn off the wad and compressed before Shabbos. One may not pour the oil onto the cotton and then smear it on the baby, since this would cause some of the oil to be squeezed out of the cotton, which is a violation of the Shabbos. The same applies to any absorbent material, even synthetic.
89Babies & Small Children1151Even though we learned that an adult should not use oil on Shabbos for chapped hands or lips, in the case of a baby, oil may be applied to parts of the body where skin has become chafed, for instance, from wet diapers. One may also apply oil to the scalp of a baby suffering from scurf, if one would do so also on another day of the week. In this case however, only a little oil should be used.
90Babies & Small Children1150A child who, on the instructions of the doctor, has to be given daily vitamins or fish oil may be given them on Shabbos too. If necessary, one may weigh or measure the amount of food which a child requires, but it is better if one is not exact in the weight or measurement. It is permissible to even weigh the child himself, when one has to ascertain how much weight, if any, he has gained after a meal.
91Babies & Small Children1149Milk extracted on Shabbos, even in a permissible manner, is muktza. However, when a child needs milk and no other is available, one may give it such milk on Shabbos, or milk that was milked by a non-Jew on Shabbos. The milk should not be handled however, besides for the purposes of the child.
92Babies & Small Children1148A child up until the age of 9 or 10 (depending on the stage of his development) requires special treatment on account of the sensitivity of his constitution. Therefore, the Rabbis permitted one, when indeed the need arises, to do on Shabbos for a child of this age whatever one may do for a person who is ill but not dangerously so. This applies to the preparation of food as well as any other need the child has which affects his health. If it is possible to satisfy the child's needs with something one has on hand without having to violate the Shabbos, then obviously it is prohibited to violate even a Rabbinical prohibition or perform the forbidden act even through a non-Jew.
93Babies & Small Children1147A change of food is liable to upset the stomach of a baby who is used to a certain type of food, such as it's mother's milk or any other kind of milk, or baby formula. Consequently, if its regular food was not prepared prior to Shabbos, one may violate the Shabbos in order to prepare it, and one should not experiment with other types of food. Obviously though, one should not rely on this and should prepare the baby's food before Shabbos starts.
94Nursing1146A nursing mother whose nipples have become inflamed and will require attention on Shabbos should, before Shabbos starts, spread the necessary ointment on the dressings she will need (and keep them covered until use, to avoid contamination). She will then be able to apply the dressings to her breasts on Shabbos. A nursing mother is permitted to take medication on Shabbos to avoid inflammation of the breasts.
95Nursing1145A mother may express milk from her breasts into a receptacle for her baby even on Shabbos, if, for some reason, the baby cannot suck from its mother's breasts or the baby is in the hospital and the mother has to bring it fresh milk every day. However, this is only if the main item of the baby's diet is the mother's milk. The reason for this is that the baby is liable to be endangered if fed other milk.
96Nursing1144The Rabbis forbade the expressing of milk on Shabbos even where it goes to waste, but not when the object is to relieve the mother's pain or discomfort. Thus, a nursing mother who is suffering discomfort because she has too much milk may dispose of the surplus by expressing it into the sink or onto a diaper or some other cloth which one does not mind being wet. If the mother finds it difficult to express milk in this way, she may even use a special (non-electric) suction pump for the purpose. Care should be taken, however, to empty out the accumulated milk at frequent intervals, in order to prevent more than a small quantity from collecting.
97Nursing1143While expressing milk (from a mother's breasts) is generally prohibited on Shabbos, if the baby will not begin to suck, the mother may express some of her milk into its mouth, to encourage it to take hold of the breast and suck. She may not express the milk into a vessel.
98Pregnancy & Birth1142Even a woman who has just given birth is obligated to light the Shabbos or Yom-Tov candles. It is proper for her to light them at the table at which the Shabbos or Yom-Tov meal is to be eaten. If she cannot rise from bed, her husband should light them instead. While in the hospital, she should light the candles where the meal is to be eaten or by her bed (and she should insist that the candles not be removed).
99Pregnancy & Birth1141From and including the eighth day (168 hours after the end of the birth) until the termination of the thirtieth day after birth, the mother is considered to be out of danger. She is regarded during this time as a person who is ill but whose life is not threatened. One may therefore do anything necessary for the mother's health through a non-Jew. A Jew may perform an act required in the patient's medical treatment if it involves only a Rabbincal prohibition, but he should do it in a different way than that which he would adopt on another day of the week (using a ).
100Pregnancy & Birth1140After the first 72 hours after birth, for the next four days (96 hours), the mother is still considered a patient whose life is in danger. However, a distinction is made between the first three days and the subsequent four days. In these latter four days, one does not violate the Shabbos for the mother for anything she says she doesn't need, so long as a doctor or midwife do not say the violation is necessary for her. However, if the mother requests, and she is G-d fearing and would be afraid to profane the Shabbos for no good reason, OR, one can tell she is speaking sincerely and is not telling a lie, then one violates the Shabbos for her even when the doctor says there is no need.